International Section - Documents

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Staff Biographies
Peter Oppenheimer
Ole Varmer
Derek Campbell
Stephanie Altman

Organization Chart
Portfolio Allocation Matrix
Summary of Lindy Johnson’s Postive Impact on the Ocean. (Alumni page)

Antarctic

Antarctic Treaty Transmittal Package (86th Cong., 2d Sess., Senate Doc file Executive B) (February 15, 1960)
Antarctic Treaty Environmental Liability Annex Treaty Transmittal Package (Senate Treaty No. 111-2) (April 2, 2009)
White House News Release on President's Transmittal of Antarctic Treaty Environmental Liability Annex to U.S. Senate (April 3, 2009). Available for (download)

Arctic and Arctic Shipping

08/05/08. Megan Campbell, U.S. Arctic Ocean Management paper.
IMO, "Guidelines For Ships Operating in the Arctic" (Dec. 23, 2002).
Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Requirements for Polar Ships International Requirements for Ships Operating in Polar Waters. 
The London Dumping Convention (08/30/75) and its 1996 Protocol (03/24/06)
MARPOL 
International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships 
International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments
International Requirements for Ships Operating in Polar Waters. 

Biological Diversity

Senate advice and consent 
Treaty Transmittal Package, Senate Treaty No. 103-20 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee Executive Report No. 103-30
Administration's 2009 Treaty Priorities List

Buoys, Vandalism/Negligent Destruction of Ocean and Coastal Observing Systems

2009 UNGA Oceans and Law of the Sea Resolution (A/RES/64/71)
2009 UNGA Sustainable Fisheries Resolution (A/RES/64/72)
IATTC recommendation to protect moored data buoys.
IATTC, Recommendation Prohibiting Fishing on Data Buoys (C-10-03, Oct. 1, 2010)
IHO, Vandalism on Ocean Data Boys, Circular Letter 30/2000 (July 11, 2000).

Climate Change

IOC Report, Sec. 4.3, Addressing the Impacts of Climate Change 
Manado Ocean Declaratio, adopted May 14, 2009
Secretary of State Clinton's recorded remarks delivered to the World Ocean Conference.
NOAA Report to Congress. Ocean Fertilization. The potential of ocean fertilization for climate change mitigation.
Steven Gill presentation Sea Level Rise Implications
Secretary of State Clinton's recorded remarks delivered to the World Ocean Conference. (download)
02/20/09. Congressional Research Service (CRS) report on Ocean Acidification
UNEP, Compilation of international statements, agreements and recommendations regarding ocean fertilization: (IMO Doc. LC30/INF.4 (28 August 2008)) with addendum (IMO Doc. LC30/INF.4/add.1 (8 Sept. 2008)) . 

Fisheries

David Balton, International Instruments for International Fisheries. Economic Perspectives 8(1):17-20 (Jan. 2003).

Glossary

Comment 11 of the Titanic Guidelines, 66 Fed. Reg. 18906 (April 12, 2001).

Heritage: Natural and Cultural Resources

"La Belle" Agreement between France and U.S., March 31, 2003
Statement of Robert C. Blumberg, U.S. Observer Delegate to the 31st UNESCO General Conference, to Commission IV of the General Conference, Regarding the U.S. Views on the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, October 29, 2001, Paris, France.
Statement of Ray Wanner, U.S. Observer Delegate to the 31st UNESCO General Conference Before the General Conference Plenary Regarding the U.S. Views on the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, November 2, 2001, Paris, France
Proceedings of the Burlington House Seminar, The UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, October 2005.
Supplement to Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis for the Final Regulations Implementing the Final Management Plan for Florida Key National Marine Sanctuary: Commercial Treasure Salvors 
Varmer, Ole. 2006. "Perspective Across the Atlantic: UNESCO Convention."
Varmer, Ole. 2006. "RMS Titanic. Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk."
Varmer, Ole. 2006. "Protection of UCH Consistent with International Law."
Varmer, Ole. 2007. "Law of the Sea and Protecting Titanic and other Deep Water Sites. Extra-territorial Protection of Heritage in Deep Water Consistent with International Law."

Japanese Mini-Sub

Agreement between United States and Japan (February 12, 2004)

Law of the Sea

Convention on the Continental Shelf of 1958
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas of 1958
1958 Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone. (download)
1958 Convention on the High Seas. (download)

Marine Debris

05/27/08. 73 Fed. Reg. 30322. U.S. Coast Guard. Proposed definition of Marine Debris for Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act
09/03/09. 74 Fed. Reg. 45555. Definition of Marine Debris for Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act

Marine Mammals: Right Whales and Ship Strikes

NOAA Enforces Right Whale Ship Strike Reduction Rule (November 16, 2010). NOAA News Release
IMO Circ. 58 (2006)
IMO Circ. 58 (2007).

Marine Mammals: Ship Strikes to North Atlantic Right Whales

NOAA Enforces Right Whale Ship Strike Reduction Rule (November 16, 2010). NOAA News Release

Marine Mammals: Underwater Noise

MEPC, 58th session, Agenda item 19, MEPC 58/INF.19, August 1, 2008, Submitted by Australia.
MEPC 58th session, Agenda item 19, MEPC 58/19, 25 June 2008, Work Programme of the Committee and Subsidiary Bodies, submitted by the United States. 
MEPC, 57th session, Agenda item 20, MEPC 57/INF.4, 17 December 2007, Shipping noise and marine mammals. Submitted by the United States.

Marine Pollution: International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships, 2001

White House News Release (January 23, 2008).
Senate Treaty Doc. 110-13 
International Convention on the Control of Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships (adopted October 18, 2001)
U.S. Proposed Implementing Legislation (February 14, 2008)
Foreign Relations Committee Report and Proposed Resolution of Ratification (with two declarations) to the AFS Convention, Ex. Rept. 110-19 (Sept. 11, 2008).
IMO Press Release announcing the entry into force of the Convention (September 16, 2008).
Congressional Record (Senate’s advice and consent to ratification) (September 26, 2008).
NOAA Press Release. (download)

Marine Pollution: Land-Based Sources and Activities Protocol

LBA Senate Treaty Document 110-1 (February 16, 2007) 

Marine Pollution: Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008

White House News Release (July 21, 2008).
NOAA Press Release. (July 9, 2008)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Press Release (July 22, 2008).
U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Press Release.
U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation Press Release (July 22, 2008)
IMO Press Release (October 9, 2008) announcing that the U.S. has deposited its instrument of ratification.
H.R. 802 as passed by the House and Senate 
Report of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science & Transportation. S. Rept. 110-394 (Sept. 23, 2008).
Report of the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. H. Rept. 109-667. (Sept. 19, 2006).
Senate Foreign Relations Committee Report and Proposed Resolution of Accession to MARPOL Annex VI Ex. Rept. 109-13. (March 30, 2006).
Congressional Record-Senate. (March 30, 2006).
Congressional Record-House.(July 8, 2008).

Marine Pollution: Ocean Dumping

Congressional Research Service, Summary of the Ocean Dumping Act
London Convention
London Protocol 
President’s Transmittal Letter, U.S. Ratification of the London Convention
President’s Transmittal Letter, U.S. Ratification of the London Protocol
Report to Senate from Foreign Relations Committee
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (33 U.S.C. §§1401 et seq)
Ocean Dumping Regulations (40 C.F.R. §§ 220 et seq.)

Waste Assessment Guidance

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): Conservation of Endangered Humpback Whales

Sanctuary Memorandum of Understanding Between the United States National Ocean Service and the Santuario de los Mamiferos Marinos of the Dominican Republic to Collaborate on International Protection of the Humpback Whale
IV. The Role Area-Based Management Tools, United Nations Report A/62/66/Add.2 on Oceans and the Law of the Sea, Addendum, Sept. 10, 2007. Section IV begins on p. 33. Available for download.

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSAs)

IMO Assembly Resolution 982, Revised Guidelines for the Identification and Designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas under MARPOL 73/78 (Dec. 1, 2005).

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): Special Area Designation (SAD)

IMO Assembly Resolution A.927(22), Guidelines for the Designation of Special Areas under MARPOL 73/78.
IMO Assembly Resolution 982, Revised Guidelines for the Identification and Designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas under MARPOL 73/78 (Dec. 1, 2005).
IMO Assembly Resolution A.927(22), Guidelines for the Designation of Special Areas under MARPOL 73/78 and Guidelines for the Identification and Designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (Nov. 29, 2001).

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): Sargasso See

International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) Resolution on Pelagic Sargassum
South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, Fishery Management Plan for Pelagic Sargassum Habitat of the South Atlantic Region (2002)
Rule to Implement Fishery Management Plan for Pelagic Sargassum Habitat of the South Atlantic Region, 68 Fed. Reg. 57375 (Oct. 3, 2003)

Maritime Zones and Boundaries

Demystifying the Maritime Zones and Other Marine Boundaries on NOAA'S Nautical Charts. Proceedings of the 14th Biennial Coastal Zone Conference, 2005. presentation
Proclamation 5928 of December 27, 1988. Territorial Sea of the United States of America. (54 Fed. Reg. 1977 (Jan. 9, 1989))
Public notice re U.S. proclaimation of a contiguous zone extending from 3 to 12 miles offshore (Department of State Public Notice 358,June 1, 1972)
Office of Legal Counsel, U.S. Department of Justice, "Legal Issues Raised by Proposed Presidential Proclamation to Extend the Territorial Sea" (Oct. 4, 1988)
Testimony of Rear Admiral Joseph Vorbach, Chief Counsel, U.S. Coast Guard, before the Subcommittee on Oceanography and the Great Lakes of the House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries regarding the extension of the U.S. territorial sea from 3 to 12 miles (March 21, 1989). Presidential Proclamation 7219 of August 2, 1999, Contiguous Zone of the United States. (64 Fed. Reg. 48701 (August 8, 1999)). 
Correction to Proclamation 7219 (64 Fed. Reg. 49844 (Sept. 14, 1999)). 
Correction to Proclamation 7219 (64 Fed. Reg. 49276 (Sept. 10, 1999)).
Proclamation 5030 of March 10, 1983. Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States. (48 Fed. Reg. 10605 (March 14, 1983)). 
President Ronald Reagan Statement on United States Ocean Policy, 19 Weekly Comp. Pres. Doc. 383 (March 10, 1983).
Fact Sheet, United States Ocean Policy, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, Mar. 10, 1983.
Department of State Public Notice 2237, "Exclusive Economic Zone and Maritime Boundaries; Notice of Limits," (60 Fed. Reg. 43825 (August 23, 1995)). 
White House Press Release, Proclamations Concerning U.S. Jurisdiction Over Natural Resources of Coastal Areas and High Seas, 13 Dep't State Bull. 484 (1945).
Presidential Proclamation No. 5030 of March 10, 1983, Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States (48 Fed. Reg. 10605 (March 14, 1983)) 
Department of the Interior, Office of the Solicitor, "Authority to Issue Outer Continental Shelf Mineral Leases in the Gorda Ridge Area," M-36952 (May 30, 1985)
Presidential Proclamation No. 2667, Policy of the United States With Respect to the Natural Resources of the Subsoil and Sea Bed of the Continental Shelf (10 Fed. Reg. 12303 (Sept. 28, 1945)). 
Map of the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone 
Letter to Certain Foreign Ministers of November 8, 1793 proclaiming a three-mile Territorial Sea of the United States (cannon shot rule)

Papahanaumokuakea National Monument

ICOMOS report
IUCN report 
73 Fed. Reg. 73592 effective January 2, 2009
UNESCO Letter Acknowledging Receipt of Complete Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument Application (March 2, 2009)
Updated U.S. Tentative List on World Heritage (UNESCO) web site. 
Federal Register Notice of U.S. Decision to Nominate PMNM as a World Heritage Site (74 Fed. Reg. 5676 (Jan. 30, 2009))
President's Proclamation, Establishment of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument (June 15, 2006)
Proclamation, Amending Proclamation 8031 of June 15, 2006, to read, "Establishment of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument" (March 2, 2007) 
White House News Release (dated May 15, 2007). 
U.S. Submission to IMO - MEPC 56/8 
Submission to IMO - MEPC 56/INF.2
NOAA Press Release on PSSA Designation (April 4, 2008)
Listing of PMNM on World Heritage (UNESCO) web site. 
The World Heritage Convention 
PSSA Review Form. MEPC 55/23.
IMO Informal Technical Working Group Report for Papahanaumokuakea PSSA Proposal. MEPC 56/WP9.

Reference Materials

Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone of 1958.
Convention on the Continental Shelf of 1958.
Convention on the High Seas of 1958.
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas of 1958.
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties
Treaties in Force for the U.S. (2009).
Publications Flyer.Dromgoole, Sarah, ed. 2006. Second Edition. The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: National Perspectives in Light of the UNESCO Convention 2001. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Varmer, Ole. 2006. Perspective Across the Atlantic: UNESCO Convention. 
Varmer, Ole. 2006. RMS Titanic. Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk. 
Varmer, Ole. 2006. Protection of UCH Consistent with International Law. 
Varmer, Ole. 2007. Law of the Sea and Protecting Titanic and other Deep Water Sites. Extra-territorial Protection of Heritage in Deep Water Consistent with International Law. 
Presidential Proclamation 8268. National Oceans Month, 2008.
White House News Release (June 2, 2008), 73 Fed. Reg. 32233 (June 5, 2008)
Presidential Proclamation 8150. National Oceans Month, 2007 72 Fed. Reg. 30951 (June 4, 2007)
White House Press Release: White House Sponsors an Easter Egg Roll. 
World Maritime Day 2007: Message of IMO Secretary General. 
IMO’s Response to Current Environmental Challenges: Background Paper. 

Regulation of Ships

(MARPOL) (download)
I. Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil (10/02/83) (download)II. Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk (04/06/87) (download)III. Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form(07/01/92) (download), IV. Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships (09/27/03) (download), V. Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships (12/31/88) (download), and VI. Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships (05/19/05) (download)
International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (not yet entered into force)(download)
Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) (UNEP)

Seabed Management

NOAA Deep Seabed Mining Regulations for Exploration Licenses, 15 C.F.R. Part 970.
International Convention for the Protection of Submarine Telegraph Cables
Features of Ocean Floor
Interim Policy and Permit Guidance for Submarine Cable Projects (April 2009), NOAA, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. Available fordownload. Final Policy and Permit Guidance for Submarine Cable Projects (September 2011), NOAA. 
1984. National Research Council, Deep Seabed Stable Reference Areas
CRS Issue Brief for Congress: The Law of the Sea Convention and U.S. Policy (2006) Deep Seabed Hard Mineral Resources Act, U.S.C. §1401 et seq. Text of Act. and Summary of Act
1981. NOAA Report to Congress on Deep Seabed Mining
1983. NOAA Report to Congress on Deep Seabed Mining.
1987. NOAA Report to Congress on Deep Seabed Mining
1989. NOAA Report to Congress on Deep Seabed Mining.
1991. NOAA Report to Congress on Deep Seabed Mining
1993. NOAA Report to Congress on Deep Seabed Mining
1995. NOAA Report to Congress on Deep Seabed Mining
1984. National Research Council, Deep Seabed Stable Reference Areas

Seabirds

DOC-DOI views letter
Proposed "Albatross and Petrel Conservation Act of 2009"
Section-by-Section Analysis of the Proposed "Albatross and Petrel Conservation Act of 2009"
Letters of January 16, 2009, from the Departments of Commerce and the Interior to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the President of the Senate forwarding the "Albatross and Petrel Conservation Act of 2009"
White House News Release on President's Transmittal of ACAP to U.S. Senate (September 26, 2008)(download)
Treaty Transmittal Package (Treaty Doc. 110-22) 
White House Fact Sheet Improving Habitat for Our Nation's Migratory Birds (October 19, 2007)(download)
Department of the Interior Press Release on the "Albatross and Petrel Conservation Act of 2009".
Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels 

Seaward Limits of U.S. Laws

Council on Environmental Quality, Implementing and Explanatory Guidance for Executive Order 12114 (44 Fed. Reg. 18722 (Mar. 29, 1979))
Council on Environmental Quality, Guidance on NEPA Analyses for Transboundary Impacts (July 1, 1997). 
Department of Commerce Administrative Order, DAO 216-12 — "Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions" (March 10, 1983).
NOAA Administrative Order, NAO 216-6 — Environmental Review Procedures for Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (May 20, 1999).
Consejo de Desarrollo Economico de Mexicali, 438 F. Supp. 2d 1207(D. Nev. 2006) 
Environmental Defense Fund Inc. v. Massey, 986 F.2d 528 (D.C. Cir. 1993).
Friends of the Earth v. Mosbacher, 488 F. Supp. 2d 889 (N.D. Cal. 2007)
U.S. Magistrate's Recommendation (Jan. 13, 1987)
U.S. Magistrate's Final Recommendation (Jan. 21, 1987)

Significant Developments (Current)

2011: Ban on Use or Carriage of Heavy Grade Oils on Ships in the Antarctic (August 1, 2011)

2011: U.S. Proposes Additional International Environmental Protections for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (March 11, 2011).

2011: Court awards Titanic collection to RMS Titanic Inc. subject to covenants and conditions of conservation and curation consistent with preservation standards (August 15, 2011).

2011: IMO Approves Treaty Amendments to Further Reduce Pollution to the Marine Environment (July 15, 2011)

2010: Cooperation on Underwater Cultural Heritage between Spain and U.S. NOAA (December 1, 2010)

2010: Wider Caribbean LBA Protocol Enters Into Force (October 14, 2010)

2010: International Maritime Organization Approves Treaty Amendments to Further Reduce Vessel Discharges of Garbage into the Marine Environment (October 1, 2010).

2010: Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument Inscribed as World Heritage Site (July 30, 2010)

2009: U.S. Signs Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Combat Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (November 22, 2009)

2009: U.S. Accession to the Law of the Sea Convention (September 4, 2009)

2009: Protocol of Amendments to the Convention on the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) (May 19, 2009)

2008: The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships, 2001 (September 17, 2008)

2008: Maritime Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 (July 21, 2008)

2007: Proposed Legislation to Implement Agreement to Protect RMS Titanic Wreck Site (July 24, 2007)

2007: Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument Designated "In Principle" as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area by the International Maritime Organization (July 13, 2007)

2007: Dominican Republic and the United States Partner in Historic Conservation Effort to Protect Endangered Humpback Whales (April 2, 2007)

2007: LBA Protocol Transmitted to Senate (February 20, 2007)

The International Maritime Organization Approves U.S. Proposal to Realign the Traffic Separation Scheme Servicing Boston to Protect Northern Right Whales(December 9, 2006)

Survey and Charting

IHO Convention
Protocol of Amendments. 
05/19/09.U.S. ratification of Protocol of Amendments to IHO Convention. 
receipt from the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Monaco. 
S. Rept. Exec. 110-10. Protocol of Amendments to Convention on International Hydrographic Organization, June 26, 2008 (Senate Advice and Consent).
White House News Release (October 24, 2007)
Senate Treaty Doc. No. 110-9 (October 23, 2007) 
IHO. A Manual on Technical Aspects of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982. Special Publ. No. 51, March 2006.
International Congress of Maritime Museums (ICMM) Report: "The Wrecksite of Titanic"

[RMS] Titanic

Proposed legislation to implement the international "Agreement Concerning the Shipwrecked Vessel RMS Titanic
Agreement with the United Kingdom, Canada and France adopted to increase protection of the RMS Titanic and its wreck site.
Recovery Guidelines to designate the site as an international maritime memorial
RMS Titanic Maritime Memorial Act of 1986 (Titanic Memorial Act)(16 U.S.C. 450rr, et seq.
U.S. Department of State Media Note (July 25, 2007)
Section-by-section analysis of the R.M.S. Titanic Maritime Memorial Preservation Act of 2007 
Transmittal letters to the United States Congress (July 24, 2007)
NOAA Guidelines for Research, Exploration and Salvage of RMS Titanic 66 Fed. Reg. 18905 (April 12, 2001) 
Titanic Guidelines, 66 Fed. Reg. 18906 (April 12, 2001)
Hearing of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on H.R. 3272, a bill to Designate the Shipwreck of the Titanic as a Maritime Memorial (Oct. 29, 1985)
H. Rept. 99-393 (Nov. 21, 1985), Report of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on The R.M.S. "Titanic Maritime Memorial Act of 1985"
Proposed legislation to protect R.M.S. Titanic from looting and unwanted salvage
Frequently Asked Questions
U.S. Department of Commerce General Counsel letter to CongressHearing of the House Merchant Marine and Fisheries Committee on H.R. 3272, a bill to Designate the Shipwreck of the Titanic as a Maritime Memorial (October 29, 1985)
H. Rept. 99-393 (November 21, 1985), Report of the House Merchant marine and Fisheries Committee on the The R.M.S. Titanic Memorial Act of 1986 
R.M.S. Titanic Maritime Memorial Preservation Act of 2009
Final Minute of the Negotiations for an Agreement on Titanic. (Jan. 2000)
President Reagan's Signing Statement for the R.M.S. Titanic Maritime Memorial Act of 1986 (October 26, 1986)
The National Park Service and the U.S. Coast Guard letter to the Secretary General of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) on January 25, 2012, requesting the issuance of a non-binding circular advising vessels to refrain from discharging any garbage, waste or effluent in a 10 square mile zone above the wreck.
Oppenheimer, Peter H. and Varmer, Ole, "Implementing the International Agreement to Protect RMS Titanic", ABA International Environmental Newsletter, Vol. 8, No. 1, December, 2006. 
Covenants and conditions.
Order granting RMST title to the artifacts recovered

Treaty Interpretation

Treaty Doc. 92-12. Message from the President of the United States to the U.S. Senate transmitting the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties for advice and consent to ratification (November 22, 1971) 
S. Prt. 106-71 (106th Cong, 2d Sess.) Treaties and Other International Agreements: The Role of the United States Senate. A Study Prepared for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by the Congressional Research Service (January 2001).
UN Treaty Reference Guide - Definition of Key Terms.
Congressional Research Service, International Law and Agreements: Their Effect Upon U.S. Law (Jan. 26, 2010).

Underwater Heritage

"La Belle" Agreement between France and U.S., March 31, 2003
Varmer, Ole. 2006. "Perspective Across the Atlantic: UNESCO Convention."
Varmer, Ole. 2006. "RMS Titanic. Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk."
Varmer, Ole. 2006. "Protection of UCH Consistent with International Law."
Varmer, Ole. 2007. "Law of the Sea and Protecting Titanic and other Deep Water Sites. Extra-territorial Protection of Heritage in Deep Water Consistent with International Law."

Underwater Sound

MEPC 58/INF.19, August 1, 2008, Submitted by Australia. 
MEPC 58/19, 25 June 2008, Work Programme of the Committee and Subsidiary Bodies, submitted by the United States. 
MEPC 57/INF.4, 17 December 2007, Shipping noise and marine mammals. Submitted by the United States.