Heritage: Natural and Cultural Resources
The concept of heritage evokes images of monuments, historic buildings and other cultural property on terrestrial sites. However, under the¬†1972 World Heritage Convention,¬†it includes natural and cultural resources and sites which are so special that there is interest in preserving them for future generations. The interest in protecting heritage is increasingly extending to the marine environment. The U.S. has nominated the¬†Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument¬†for listing as a World Heritage Site for the outstanding universal value of its natural and cultural heritage. Concern for looting and unwanted salvage led to the development of the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH), the International Agreement on¬†RMS Titanic¬†as well as the NOAA¬†RMS Titanic¬†Guidelines and the Administration's proposed¬†RMS Titanic¬†implementing legislation. The Law of the Sea Convention, particularly Article 149 and Article 303, provides the international legal framework for these and other international agreements protecting UCH.
Additional reference information:
- President's 2001 Statement on Sunken Warships
- 2004 Sunken Military Craft Act
- Naval History and Heritage Command (NHHC)
- NOAA Maritime Heritage Program
- "La Belle" Agreement¬†between France and U.S., March 31, 2003
- "CSS Alabama" Agreement¬†between France and the U.S., March 8, 1995
- Statement of Robert C. Blumberg,¬†U.S. Observer Delegate to the 31st UNESCO General Conference, to Commission IV of the General Conference, Regarding the U.S. Views on the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, October 29, 2001, Paris, France.
- Statement of Ray Wanner,¬†U.S. Observer Delegate to the 31st UNESCO General Conference Before the General Conference Plenary Regarding the U.S. Views on the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, November 2, 2001, Paris, France
- Proceedings of the Burlington House Seminar,¬†The UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, October 2005.
- June 1997.¬†Supplement to Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis for the Final Regulations Implementing the Final Management Plan for Florida Key National Marine Sanctuary: Commercial Treasure Salvors
- Varmer, Ole.¬†2006. "Perspective Across the Atlantic: UNESCO Convention."
- Varmer, Ole.¬†2006. "RMS Titanic. Underwater Cultural Heritage at Risk."
- Varmer, Ole.¬†2006. "Protection of UCH Consistent with International Law."
- Varmer, Ole.¬†2007. "Law of the Sea and Protecting Titanic and other Deep Water Sites. Extra-territorial Protection of Heritage in Deep Water Consistent with International Law."