The Cartagena Convention, Oil Spill Protocal, SPAW Protocal and LBS Protocol

 

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Map: Ratification of Cartagena Convention and Oil Spills Protocol

Photo 79: Map: Ratification of Cartagena Convention and Oil Spills Protocol. 
(United Nations, Caribbean Environment Programme)

The Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention) and the Protocol to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region Concerning Co-operation in Combating Oil-Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region (Oil Spills Protocol) were the results of the Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region convened by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in March of 1983 in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. Adopted in 1983, the Convention and Oil Spill Protocol entered into force in October 11, 1986.
After the initial Convention and Protocol, two additional Protocols were adopted. First, in 1990 the Protocol to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW Protocol) was adopted, entering into force in June 18, 2000.  Then, in 1999, a third protocol, Concerning Pollution from Land-based Sources and Activities (LBS Protocol), was adopted, entering into force August 13, 2010. New signatories to the Cartagena Convention must sign on to at least one protocol at the same time they sign the Convention.
The United States has signed and ratified the Cartagena Convention and all three of its Protocols. The United States ratified the Cartagena Convention and Oil Spill Protocol on October 31, 1984 (signed March 24, 1983), the SPAW Protocol on April 16, 2003 (signed January 18, 1990), and the LBS Protocol on February 13, 2009 (signed October 6, 1999). The United Nations web site provides additional information on the status of the agreements of each signing nation.
Additional reference information: 
Generally

Cartagena Convention & Oil Spills Protocol

SPAW Protocol:

Land -based Sources Protocol: